Classical Swine Fever (CSF), also called Hog Cholera, is a viral disease that affects pigs. It occurs in various parts of the world, including the Americas. Our nearest neighbours Cuba and Haiti are endemic for the disease although it is not known to occur in Jamaica.
It is a disease of major international importance and is high on the World Organization for Animal Health's (OIE's) list of reportable diseases. Its occurrence in a country therefore affects that territory's ability to trade in pigs and pig products on the international market.
Jamaica has to carry out surveillance for CSF in order to show that we are free of this disease. Passive surveillance involves the reporting and investigation of suspicious illness in pigs. The disease shares some clinical signs with many other diseases and disorders and so may be difficult to diagnose on simple inspection. These signs include fever, lethargy, reddening of the skin and ears, and in many cases death in younger pigs. Sows may abort their piglets, some of which may be mummified, others may be still-born at full term.
Active surveillance includes targeted or random blood sample collection and testing from the pig population in general, with positive preliminary tests being first confirmed followed by further investigation of an affected herd.
Should CSF be found in Jamaica, our National Emergency Animal Disease plan would be activated and efforts would be made to halt its spread and stamp out the disease. It is important that suspicious cases of illness in pigs be reported to the Veterinary Services Division immediately.
The above summary is based on information presented by Dr. Rayon Gregory.
For a detailed look at the disease itself, please click below:
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea (PED) is an acute viral disease of the intestine of the pig. The disease was first diagnosed in Great Britain in 1971 and has been reported in most European countries and in Asia. The first reported occurrence of PED in this hemisphere was for confirmed cases in USA on May 16th, 2013. Since then the virus has spread to 30 states of the USA and to Canada, Colombia, Mexico and in the Caribbean, in the Dominican Republic. In early 2014, another related virus, Porcine Delta Coronavirus (PDCoV), was discovered in the USA.